Responsible tourism development-A systematic review & bibliometric analysis

Published: Mar 21, 2024

Abstract:

Purpose: This study aims to systematically review and conduct a bibliometric analysis of the literature on Responsible Tourism development using articles published between 2002 and 2023.

Research Methodology: Systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted using established databases using preferred reporting items for systematic review meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and Vosviwer software was employed to identify key trends, themes, and contributors in the field.

Results: The review identified a growing body of literature on Responsible Tourism and found key phrases in scientific publications, predominantly on Responsible Tourism development: 71 articles were included from Lens.ORG, Emerald Insight, and Google Scholar databases, all of which were formatted for Lens. ORG. The two main themes were (1) economic development-related outcomes and (2) sustainability of tourism-based outcomes. The findings imply that future study trends should focus on sustainable outcomes such as responsible tourism development. A bibliometric analysis revealed a network of authors and their notable contributions from both academia and industry.

Limitations: The study was limited by the availability of literature in the searched databases and the scope of the review over a considerable period.

Contributions: Understanding responsible tourism development by providing a comprehensive overview of the literature and illustrating key trends and themes is the major contribution of this study. It also highlights the need for further research in certain areas regarding the role of technology in responsible tourism development and enhancing residents’ quality of life.

Keywords:
1. Tourism
2. Sustainable Tourism
3. Responsible Tourism
4. Economic Growth
5. Quality of Life
Authors:
1 . P. G. S. S. Pattiyagedara
2 . J. P. R. C. Ranasinghe
How to Cite
Pattiyagedara, P. G. S. S., & Ranasinghe , J. P. R. C. (2024). Responsible tourism development-A systematic review & bibliometric analysis. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 4(1), 59–85. https://doi.org/10.35912/joste.v4i1.1960

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References

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    Aparicio, G., Iturralde, T., & Maseda, A. (2019). Conceptual structure and perspectives on entrepreneurship education research: A bibliometric review. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 105-113.

    Aref, F. (2011). The effects of tourism on quality of life: A case study of Shiraz, Iran. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 26-30.

    Arie, K. (2018). The Sustainable Development of the Hong Kong Economy: A case study of the Film Industry. Global studies(2), 85-99.

    Bertella, G., & Romanelli, C. R. (2020). Tourism initiatives developed through collaboration with foreign organizations: The emergence of responsible practices in Cuba Tourism and Cuba (pp. 50-66): Routledge.

    Bojanic, D. (2011). Using a tourism importance–performance typology to investigate environmental sustainability on a global level. Journal of sustainable tourism, 19(8), 989-1003.

    Brereton, P., Kitchenham, B. A., Budgen, D., Turner, M., & Khalil, M. (2007). Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Journal of Systems and Software, 80(4), 571-583.

    Chan, J. K. L., & Tay, K. X. (2016). Tour operator perspectives on responsible tourism practices: a case of Kinabalu National Park, Sabah. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 121-137.

    Chen, D., Liu, Z., Luo, Z., Webber, M., & Chen, J. (2016). Bibliometric and visualized analysis of emergy research. Ecological Engineering, 90, 285-293.

    Cobo, M. J., López?Herrera, A. G., Herrera?Viedma, E., & Herrera, F. (2012). SciMAT: A new science mapping analysis software tool. Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1609-1630.

    Dale, N. F., L'Espoir Decosta, P. J., & Kelly, L. (2022). Transformative Experiences on School Excursions: Students as Catalysts for Sustainable Tourism Children in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism (pp. 101-114): Emerald Publishing Limited.

    Djedi, S., Aït-Yahia, K. G., & Sofiane, S. H. (2022). Empowering Children: A Path toward Sustainable Tourism in Emerging Countries Children in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism (pp. 115-128): Emerald Publishing Limited.

    Duminduhewa, C., Wimalarathana, R., & Kaldeen, M. (2020). Demand for Responsible Tourism In Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Yala Wildlife Destination. Journal on Tourism & Sustainability, 4(1), 27-40.

    Eichelberger, S., Heigl, M., Peters, M., & Pikkemaat, B. (2021). Exploring the role of tourists: Responsible behavior triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(11), 5774.

    Ekpah, O. (2021). Wildlife status and ecotourism potentials of Lekki Conservation Centre, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(4), 199-212.

    Erawan, T., & Krairit, D. (2020). Responsible Tourism Consumption in Thailand: eWOM’s Role. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 11(2), 471-485.

    Frey, N., & George, R. (2010). Responsible tourism management: The missing link between business owners' attitudes and behaviour in the Cape Town tourism industry. Tourism management, 31(5), 621-628.

    Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, A., & Wooliscroft, B. (2019). Well-being and everyday ethical consumption. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20, 141-163.

    George, A. A. (2021). Social and cultural influences and their implications for sustainable tourism: A case study of Trinidad & Tobago's tourism and the growth of the LGBTQ traveler segment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(3), 147-157.

    Gijsbers, I., & Gonzalez Gutierrez de Leon, A. (2019). Responsible Tourism: Using Tourism for Sustainable Development. Journal of Tourism Futures, 5(1), 100-101.

    Gomez-Trujillo, A. M., & Gonzalez-Perez, M. A. (2021). Digital transformation as a strategy to reach sustainability. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 11(4), 1137-1162.

    Goodwin, H., & Francis, J. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the UK. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 271-284.

    Hanafiah, M. H., Azman, I., Jamaluddin, M. R., & Aminuddin, N. (2016). Responsible tourism practices and quality of life: Perspective of Langkawi Island communities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 222, 406-413.

    Heslinga, J. H., Hartman, S., & Wielenga, B. (2021). Irresponsible responsible tourism; observations from nature areas in Norway. Journal of Tourism Futures, 7(2), 197-202.

    Iriarte, L., & Musikanski, L. (2019). Bridging the gap between the sustainable development goals and happiness metrics. International Journal of Community Well-Being, 1(2), 115-135.

    Kitchenham, B., & Charters, S. (2007). Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering: UK.

    Kotze, R. H. (2019). Effecting successful shared value creation: The role of organisations in fence-line communities. University of Pretoria.

    Koutra, C. (2007). Development, equality and participation: socially responsible tourism through capacity building. University of Brighton.

    Koutra, C. (2008). Financial capital for tourism development and wealth creation.

    Legrand, W., & Nielsen, R. S. (2018). Towards a Responsible Experience Economy: Ethics through Aesthetics in Tourism Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (pp. 173-182): Emerald Publishing Limited.

    Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., . . . Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 62(10), e1-e34.

    Mathew, P. V. (2022). Sustainable tourism development: discerning the impact of responsible tourism on community well-being. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 5(5), 987-1001.

    Mathew, P. V., & Kuriakose, V. (2018). Measurement for responsible tourism: Development of a stakeholder-based scale. Asian Journal of Management, 9(1), 479-489.

    Mathew, P. V., & Sreejesh, S. (2017). Impact of responsible tourism on destination sustainability and quality of life of community in tourism destinations. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 83-89.

    Matthew, G. (2017). Theoretical approaches to the political economy of tourism in the GCC states International tourism development and the Gulf Cooperation Council States (pp. 29-44): Routledge.

    Mondal, S., & Samaddar, K. (2022). Responsible tourism towards sustainable development: Literature review and research agenda. Trends in Asia Pacific Business and Management Research, 85-122.

    Nair, V., Hussain, K., Lo, M. C., & Ragavan, N. A. (2015). Benchmarking innovations and new practices in rural tourism development: How do we develop a more sustainable and responsible rural tourism in Asia? Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 7(5), 530-534.

    Nguyen, P. M., Vo, N. D., To, Q. L., & Dinh, V. T. (2022). Toward responsible tourism in Vietnam: Critical review and implications for future research. Global Changes and Sustainable Development in Asian Emerging Market Economies Vol. 1: Proceedings of EDESUS 2019, 605-621.

    Pathiraja, H., Karunarathne, A., Hewage, V., & Jayawardena, H. (2021). Revival of Sri Lankan Wildlife Tourism Operation in New Normal Conditions of Covid-19: Challenges and Readiness. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 101-113.

    Priyashantha, K. (2023). Disruptive technologies for human resource management: a conceptual framework development and research agenda. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 15(1), 21-36.

    Priyashantha, K., De Alwis, A. C., & Welmilla, I. (2022). Disruptive human resource management technologies: A systematic literature review. European Journal of Management and Business Economics(ahead-of-print).

    Priyashantha, K., De Alwis, A. C., & Welmilla, I. (2023). Gender stereotypes change outcomes: A systematic literature review. Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, 5(5), 450-466.

    Priyashantha, K., & Dilhani, V. (2022). Determinants of E-government adoption: a systematic literature review.

    Raman, R., Achuthan, K., Nair, V. K., & Nedungadi, P. (2022). Virtual Laboratories-A historical review and bibliometric analysis of the past three decades. Education and Information Technologies, 27(8), 11055-11087.

    Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Ramakrishna, S., Hall, C. M., Esfandiar, K., & Seyfi, S. (2023). A systematic scoping review of sustainable tourism indicators in relation to the sustainable development goals. Journal of sustainable tourism, 31(7), 1497-1517.

    Saarinen, J. (2021). Is being responsible sustainable in tourism? Connections and critical differences. Sustainability, 13(12), 6599.

    Sariskumar, N., & Bhavan, T. (2018). The impact of responsible tourism on destination sustainability and quality of life in Passikudah tourism destination. International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(11), 5933-5959.

    Séraphin, H., Ivanov, S., Yallop, A. C., & Fotiadis, A. (2022). An Analysis of the Strategic Approach Used by Resort Mini-Clubs to Educate Children about Responsible Tourism Children in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism (pp. 71-98): Emerald Publishing Limited.

    Seraphin, H., Yallop, A. C., Seyfi, S., & Hall, C. M. (2022). Responsible tourism: The ‘why’and ‘how’of empowering children. Tourism Recreation Research, 47(1), 62-77.

    Setiyorini, H., Chen, T., & Pryce, J. (2022). Learning from the COVID-19 Pandemic: Media Representations of Responsible Coffee Tourism Practices in Indonesia. Community Empowerment, Sustainable Cities, and Transformative Economies, 315-336.

    Simmons, B., Bushell, R., & Scott, J. (2010). Fostering responsible tourism business practices through collaborative capacity-building. Facilitating sustainable innovation through collaboration: A multi-stakeholder perspective, 185-201.

    Sirgy, M. J., Phillips, R., & Rahtz, D. R. (2009). Community quality-of-life indicators: Best cases II: Springer.

    Smith, V. L., & Font, X. (2014). Volunteer tourism, greenwashing and understanding responsible marketing using market signalling theory. Journal of sustainable tourism, 22(6), 942-963.

    Stanford, D. (2006). RESPONSIBLE TOURISM, RESPONSIBLE TOURISTS: What makes a responsible tourist in New Zealand?

    Stoffelen, A., Adiyia, B., Vanneste, D., & Kotze, N. (2020). Post-apartheid local sustainable development through tourism: an analysis of policy perceptions among ‘responsible’tourism stakeholders around Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. Journal of sustainable tourism, 28(3), 414-432.

    Tay, K. X., Chan, J. K. L., Vogt, C. A., & Mohamed, B. (2016). Comprehending the responsible tourism practices through principles of sustainability: A case of Kinabalu Park. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 34-41.

    Uchinlayen, U., Sarker, B. K., & Saha, S. K. (2022). Sustainable tourism development in Bangladesh: Challenges and opportunities to promote the Sundarbans. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(4), 287-300.

    UNWTO. (1980). Manila Declaration on World Tourism. Retrieved from

    Uysal, M., Sirgy, M. J., Woo, E., & Kim, H. L. (2016). Quality of life (QOL) and well-being research in tourism. Tourism management, 53, 244-261.

    Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2014). Visualizing bibliometric networks Measuring scholarly impact: Methods and practice (pp. 285-320): Springer.

    Vikneswaran Nair, V. N., Badaruddin Mohamed, B. M., & Chiun LoMay, C. L. (2015). Multi-dimensional responsible rural tourism capacity (RRTC) framework: a proposed environmental responsibility and management model for Malaysia.

    Wight, A. C. (2013). Identifying best practice in national tourism organisations: Lessons for the United Kingdom. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19(2), 133-148.

    Xiong, W., Huang, M., Leung, X. Y., Zhang, Y., & Cai, X. (2023). How environmental emotions link to responsible consumption behavior: tourism agenda 2030. Tourism Review, 78(2), 517-530.

    Zakaria, A. (2021). Assessing the effectiveness of local community leaders in managing forest resources in the Mole National Park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(1), 1-16.

  1. Andrli?, B., Priyashantha, K. G., & De Alwis, A. C. (2023). Employee engagement management in the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 15(2), 987.
  2. Aparicio, G., Iturralde, T., & Maseda, A. (2019). Conceptual structure and perspectives on entrepreneurship education research: A bibliometric review. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 105-113.
  3. Aref, F. (2011). The effects of tourism on quality of life: A case study of Shiraz, Iran. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 26-30.
  4. Arie, K. (2018). The Sustainable Development of the Hong Kong Economy: A case study of the Film Industry. Global studies(2), 85-99.
  5. Bertella, G., & Romanelli, C. R. (2020). Tourism initiatives developed through collaboration with foreign organizations: The emergence of responsible practices in Cuba Tourism and Cuba (pp. 50-66): Routledge.
  6. Bojanic, D. (2011). Using a tourism importance–performance typology to investigate environmental sustainability on a global level. Journal of sustainable tourism, 19(8), 989-1003.
  7. Brereton, P., Kitchenham, B. A., Budgen, D., Turner, M., & Khalil, M. (2007). Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Journal of Systems and Software, 80(4), 571-583.
  8. Chan, J. K. L., & Tay, K. X. (2016). Tour operator perspectives on responsible tourism practices: a case of Kinabalu National Park, Sabah. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 121-137.
  9. Chen, D., Liu, Z., Luo, Z., Webber, M., & Chen, J. (2016). Bibliometric and visualized analysis of emergy research. Ecological Engineering, 90, 285-293.
  10. Cobo, M. J., López?Herrera, A. G., Herrera?Viedma, E., & Herrera, F. (2012). SciMAT: A new science mapping analysis software tool. Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1609-1630.
  11. Dale, N. F., L'Espoir Decosta, P. J., & Kelly, L. (2022). Transformative Experiences on School Excursions: Students as Catalysts for Sustainable Tourism Children in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism (pp. 101-114): Emerald Publishing Limited.
  12. Djedi, S., Aït-Yahia, K. G., & Sofiane, S. H. (2022). Empowering Children: A Path toward Sustainable Tourism in Emerging Countries Children in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism (pp. 115-128): Emerald Publishing Limited.
  13. Duminduhewa, C., Wimalarathana, R., & Kaldeen, M. (2020). Demand for Responsible Tourism In Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Yala Wildlife Destination. Journal on Tourism & Sustainability, 4(1), 27-40.
  14. Eichelberger, S., Heigl, M., Peters, M., & Pikkemaat, B. (2021). Exploring the role of tourists: Responsible behavior triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(11), 5774.
  15. Ekpah, O. (2021). Wildlife status and ecotourism potentials of Lekki Conservation Centre, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(4), 199-212.
  16. Erawan, T., & Krairit, D. (2020). Responsible Tourism Consumption in Thailand: eWOM’s Role. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 11(2), 471-485.
  17. Frey, N., & George, R. (2010). Responsible tourism management: The missing link between business owners' attitudes and behaviour in the Cape Town tourism industry. Tourism management, 31(5), 621-628.
  18. Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, A., & Wooliscroft, B. (2019). Well-being and everyday ethical consumption. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20, 141-163.
  19. George, A. A. (2021). Social and cultural influences and their implications for sustainable tourism: A case study of Trinidad & Tobago's tourism and the growth of the LGBTQ traveler segment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(3), 147-157.
  20. Gijsbers, I., & Gonzalez Gutierrez de Leon, A. (2019). Responsible Tourism: Using Tourism for Sustainable Development. Journal of Tourism Futures, 5(1), 100-101.
  21. Gomez-Trujillo, A. M., & Gonzalez-Perez, M. A. (2021). Digital transformation as a strategy to reach sustainability. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 11(4), 1137-1162.
  22. Goodwin, H., & Francis, J. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the UK. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 271-284.
  23. Hanafiah, M. H., Azman, I., Jamaluddin, M. R., & Aminuddin, N. (2016). Responsible tourism practices and quality of life: Perspective of Langkawi Island communities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 222, 406-413.
  24. Heslinga, J. H., Hartman, S., & Wielenga, B. (2021). Irresponsible responsible tourism; observations from nature areas in Norway. Journal of Tourism Futures, 7(2), 197-202.
  25. Iriarte, L., & Musikanski, L. (2019). Bridging the gap between the sustainable development goals and happiness metrics. International Journal of Community Well-Being, 1(2), 115-135.
  26. Kitchenham, B., & Charters, S. (2007). Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering: UK.
  27. Kotze, R. H. (2019). Effecting successful shared value creation: The role of organisations in fence-line communities. University of Pretoria.
  28. Koutra, C. (2007). Development, equality and participation: socially responsible tourism through capacity building. University of Brighton.
  29. Koutra, C. (2008). Financial capital for tourism development and wealth creation.
  30. Legrand, W., & Nielsen, R. S. (2018). Towards a Responsible Experience Economy: Ethics through Aesthetics in Tourism Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (pp. 173-182): Emerald Publishing Limited.
  31. Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., . . . Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 62(10), e1-e34.
  32. Mathew, P. V. (2022). Sustainable tourism development: discerning the impact of responsible tourism on community well-being. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 5(5), 987-1001.
  33. Mathew, P. V., & Kuriakose, V. (2018). Measurement for responsible tourism: Development of a stakeholder-based scale. Asian Journal of Management, 9(1), 479-489.
  34. Mathew, P. V., & Sreejesh, S. (2017). Impact of responsible tourism on destination sustainability and quality of life of community in tourism destinations. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 83-89.
  35. Matthew, G. (2017). Theoretical approaches to the political economy of tourism in the GCC states International tourism development and the Gulf Cooperation Council States (pp. 29-44): Routledge.
  36. Mondal, S., & Samaddar, K. (2022). Responsible tourism towards sustainable development: Literature review and research agenda. Trends in Asia Pacific Business and Management Research, 85-122.
  37. Nair, V., Hussain, K., Lo, M. C., & Ragavan, N. A. (2015). Benchmarking innovations and new practices in rural tourism development: How do we develop a more sustainable and responsible rural tourism in Asia? Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 7(5), 530-534.
  38. Nguyen, P. M., Vo, N. D., To, Q. L., & Dinh, V. T. (2022). Toward responsible tourism in Vietnam: Critical review and implications for future research. Global Changes and Sustainable Development in Asian Emerging Market Economies Vol. 1: Proceedings of EDESUS 2019, 605-621.
  39. Pathiraja, H., Karunarathne, A., Hewage, V., & Jayawardena, H. (2021). Revival of Sri Lankan Wildlife Tourism Operation in New Normal Conditions of Covid-19: Challenges and Readiness. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 101-113.
  40. Priyashantha, K. (2023). Disruptive technologies for human resource management: a conceptual framework development and research agenda. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 15(1), 21-36.
  41. Priyashantha, K., De Alwis, A. C., & Welmilla, I. (2022). Disruptive human resource management technologies: A systematic literature review. European Journal of Management and Business Economics(ahead-of-print).
  42. Priyashantha, K., De Alwis, A. C., & Welmilla, I. (2023). Gender stereotypes change outcomes: A systematic literature review. Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, 5(5), 450-466.
  43. Priyashantha, K., & Dilhani, V. (2022). Determinants of E-government adoption: a systematic literature review.
  44. Raman, R., Achuthan, K., Nair, V. K., & Nedungadi, P. (2022). Virtual Laboratories-A historical review and bibliometric analysis of the past three decades. Education and Information Technologies, 27(8), 11055-11087.
  45. Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Ramakrishna, S., Hall, C. M., Esfandiar, K., & Seyfi, S. (2023). A systematic scoping review of sustainable tourism indicators in relation to the sustainable development goals. Journal of sustainable tourism, 31(7), 1497-1517.
  46. Saarinen, J. (2021). Is being responsible sustainable in tourism? Connections and critical differences. Sustainability, 13(12), 6599.
  47. Sariskumar, N., & Bhavan, T. (2018). The impact of responsible tourism on destination sustainability and quality of life in Passikudah tourism destination. International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(11), 5933-5959.
  48. Séraphin, H., Ivanov, S., Yallop, A. C., & Fotiadis, A. (2022). An Analysis of the Strategic Approach Used by Resort Mini-Clubs to Educate Children about Responsible Tourism Children in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism (pp. 71-98): Emerald Publishing Limited.
  49. Seraphin, H., Yallop, A. C., Seyfi, S., & Hall, C. M. (2022). Responsible tourism: The ‘why’and ‘how’of empowering children. Tourism Recreation Research, 47(1), 62-77.
  50. Setiyorini, H., Chen, T., & Pryce, J. (2022). Learning from the COVID-19 Pandemic: Media Representations of Responsible Coffee Tourism Practices in Indonesia. Community Empowerment, Sustainable Cities, and Transformative Economies, 315-336.
  51. Simmons, B., Bushell, R., & Scott, J. (2010). Fostering responsible tourism business practices through collaborative capacity-building. Facilitating sustainable innovation through collaboration: A multi-stakeholder perspective, 185-201.
  52. Sirgy, M. J., Phillips, R., & Rahtz, D. R. (2009). Community quality-of-life indicators: Best cases II: Springer.
  53. Smith, V. L., & Font, X. (2014). Volunteer tourism, greenwashing and understanding responsible marketing using market signalling theory. Journal of sustainable tourism, 22(6), 942-963.
  54. Stanford, D. (2006). RESPONSIBLE TOURISM, RESPONSIBLE TOURISTS: What makes a responsible tourist in New Zealand?
  55. Stoffelen, A., Adiyia, B., Vanneste, D., & Kotze, N. (2020). Post-apartheid local sustainable development through tourism: an analysis of policy perceptions among ‘responsible’tourism stakeholders around Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. Journal of sustainable tourism, 28(3), 414-432.
  56. Tay, K. X., Chan, J. K. L., Vogt, C. A., & Mohamed, B. (2016). Comprehending the responsible tourism practices through principles of sustainability: A case of Kinabalu Park. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 34-41.
  57. Uchinlayen, U., Sarker, B. K., & Saha, S. K. (2022). Sustainable tourism development in Bangladesh: Challenges and opportunities to promote the Sundarbans. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(4), 287-300.
  58. UNWTO. (1980). Manila Declaration on World Tourism. Retrieved from
  59. Uysal, M., Sirgy, M. J., Woo, E., & Kim, H. L. (2016). Quality of life (QOL) and well-being research in tourism. Tourism management, 53, 244-261.
  60. Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2014). Visualizing bibliometric networks Measuring scholarly impact: Methods and practice (pp. 285-320): Springer.
  61. Vikneswaran Nair, V. N., Badaruddin Mohamed, B. M., & Chiun LoMay, C. L. (2015). Multi-dimensional responsible rural tourism capacity (RRTC) framework: a proposed environmental responsibility and management model for Malaysia.
  62. Wight, A. C. (2013). Identifying best practice in national tourism organisations: Lessons for the United Kingdom. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19(2), 133-148.
  63. Xiong, W., Huang, M., Leung, X. Y., Zhang, Y., & Cai, X. (2023). How environmental emotions link to responsible consumption behavior: tourism agenda 2030. Tourism Review, 78(2), 517-530.
  64. Zakaria, A. (2021). Assessing the effectiveness of local community leaders in managing forest resources in the Mole National Park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(1), 1-16.