Does sustainability matter at tourism sites? Impact of motivation and employee-ambidexterity on employee-innovative-behaviour

Published: Mar 1, 2024

Abstract:

Purpose: The sustainability of tourism sites in plateau states has been a significant concern. This study aims to analyze the impact of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) and employee ambidexterity on innovative employee behavior on the sustainability of tourism sites in Nigeria.

Research Methodology: A quantitative approach was adopted and a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among employees of five government tourism sites in Plateau State, Nigeria. A total of 163 responses were received and multiple regression analyses were conducted using Smart-PLS version 3.2.7.

Results: The results revealed that (a) intrinsic motivation significantly impacts innovative employee behavior, (b) extrinsic motivation significantly impacts innovative employee behavior, (c) intrinsic motivation significantly impacts employee ambidexterity, (d) extrinsic motivation significantly impacts employee ambidexterity, (e) employee ambidexterity significantly impacts employee innovative behavior, (f) employee ambidexterity mediates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee innovative behavior, and (g) employee ambidexterity mediates the relationship between extrinsic motivation and innovative employee behavior.

Limitations: This research was conducted on five renowned government tourism sites in the Plateau State; private tourism sites/recreation facilities could be included.

Contributions: This study recommends that managers of tourist sites should incorporate intrinsic and extrinsic motivational practices to stimulate positive employee work outcomes that will, in turn, enhance the sustainability of tourist site resources and offer a welcoming, memorable, and friendly experience to tourists.

Keywords:
1. Motivation
2. intrinsic motivation
3. extrinsic motivation
4. employee-ambidexterity behavior
5. employee-innovative-behaviour
Authors:
1 . Bitrus Zinga Danlami
2 . Monica Clarkson Gajere
How to Cite
Danlami, B. Z., & Gajere, M. C. (2024). Does sustainability matter at tourism sites? Impact of motivation and employee-ambidexterity on employee-innovative-behaviour. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 4(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.35912/joste.v3i4.1770

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References

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    Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 140(4), 980.

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    Chong, K. Y., & Balasingam, A. S. (2019). Tourism sustainability: Economic benefits and strategies for preservation and conservation of heritage sitesin Southeast Asia. Tourism Review, 74(2), 268-279.

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  1. Afsar, B., & Umrani, W. A. (2020). Transformational leadership and innovative work behavior: The role of motivation to learn, task complexity and innovation climate. European Journal of Innovation Management, 23(3), 402-428.
  2. Amoako, G. K., Obuobisa-Darko, T., & Ohene Marfo, S. (2022). Stakeholder role in tourism sustainability: the case of Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum and centre for art and culture in Ghana. International Hospitality Review, 36(1), 25-44.
  3. Ashikodi, T. (2010). Tourism Development in the coastal region of Nigeria: Economics of Tourism development a shift from oil dependence. Paper presented at the Annual Conference on Tourism Development, Nigeria.
  4. Bassey, B. E. (2015). Transforming the Nigeria tourism industry through tourism entrepreneurial development. African journal of business management, 9(15), 569-580.
  5. Baum, T. (2018). Sustainable human resource management as a driver in tourism policy and planning: a serious sin of omission? Journal of sustainable tourism, 26(6), 873-889.
  6. Buba, E. E., Elma, F., Agasi, A., & Sadiq, S. A. (2020). Nigeria’s Tourism Master Plan And Issues On Its Strategic Implementation. International Journal of Management Science and Entrepreneurship, 19(7).
  7. Calderwood, L. U., & Soshkin, M. (2019). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-travel-tourism-competitiveness-report-2019/
  8. Caniëls, M. C., & Veld, M. (2019). Employee ambidexterity, high performance work systems and innovative work behaviour: How much balance do we need? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(4), 565-585.
  9. Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 140(4), 980.
  10. Cho, Y. J., & Perry, J. L. (2012). Intrinsic motivation and employee attitudes: Role of managerial trustworthiness, goal directedness, and extrinsic reward expectancy. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(4), 382-406.
  11. Chong, K. Y., & Balasingam, A. S. (2019). Tourism sustainability: Economic benefits and strategies for preservation and conservation of heritage sitesin Southeast Asia. Tourism Review, 74(2), 268-279.
  12. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis.
  13. Cropanzano, R., Anthony, E. L., Daniels, S. R., & Hall, A. V. (2017). Social exchange theory: A critical review with theoretical remedies. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 479-516.
  14. Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2006). Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. British journal of management, 17(4), 263-282.
  15. Dorta-Afonso, D., González-de-la-Rosa, M., Garcia-Rodriguez, F. J., & Romero-Domínguez, L. (2021). Effects of high-performance work systems (HPWS) on hospitality employees’ outcomes through their organizational commitment, motivation, and job satisfaction. Sustainability, 13(6), 3226.
  16. ecgi. (2012). Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions A Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A52012DC0673
  17. Ekeke, J., & Olori, W. (2020). Nigerian tourism industry and global competiveness: constraints and opportunities. Transatlantic Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(1/2), 182-199.
  18. Escribá-Carda, N., Balbastre-Benavent, F., & Canet-Giner, M. T. (2017). Employees' perceptions of high-performance work systems and innovative behaviour: The role of exploratory learning. European Management Journal, 35(2), 273-281.
  19. Faisal, A., Mook, M., Lee, S., Malul, M., & Shoham, A. (2015). Behavior ambidexterity: The impact of incentive schemes on productivity, motivation, and performance of employee in commercial banks. Hum. Resour. Manag, 54, s45-s62.
  20. Garaus, C., Furtmüller, G., & Güttel, W. H. (2016). The hidden power of small rewards: The effects of insufficient external rewards on autonomous motivation to learn. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(1), 45-59.
  21. George, A. A. (2021). Social and cultural influences and their implications for sustainable tourism: A case study of Trinidad & Tobago's tourism and the growth of the LGBTQ traveler segment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(3), 147-157.
  22. Gonap, E. G., Clement, U. A., & Nesla, R. A. (2017). People’s Perception of Tourist Facilities on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria.
  23. Good, D., & Michel, E. J. (2013). Individual ambidexterity: Exploring and exploiting in dynamic contexts. The Journal of psychology, 147(5), 435-453.
  24. Graves, L. M., Sarkis, J., & Zhu, Q. (2013). How transformational leadership and employee motivation combine to predict employee proenvironmental behaviors in China. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 35, 81-91.
  25. Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24.
  26. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43, 115-135.
  27. Hu, H. (2022). Work for Interest or Utility? Research on the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations on Individual Employees’ Ambidextrous Behavior.
  28. Hughes, D. J., Lee, A., Tian, A. W., Newman, A., & Legood, A. (2018). Leadership, creativity, and innovation: A critical review and practical recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(5), 549-569.
  29. Ijeomah, H., & Esaen, N. (2011). Tourism management in selected ecotourism destinations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 6(10), 1-13.
  30. Indrayanto, A., Nugroho, S. W., Nurfitri, T., & Hongbo, D. (2018). Influence Of Work Motivation And Work Environment On Competitive Advantage: Study Of Indonesia And China Tourism Workers. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen, 16(1), 1-8.
  31. Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort?reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287-302.
  32. Kim, K. (2022). Supervisor leadership and subordinates’ innovative work behaviors: Creating a relational context for organizational sustainability. Sustainability, 14(6), 3230.
  33. Kimwolo, A., & Cheruiyot, T. (2018). Intrinsically motivating idiosyncratic deals and innovative work behaviour. International Journal of Innovation Science, 11(1), 31-47.
  34. Kuvaas, B., Buch, R., Weibel, A., Dysvik, A., & Nerstad, C. G. (2017). Do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate differently to employee outcomes? Journal of Economic Psychology, 61, 244-258.
  35. Lichauco, T. A. N. B. (2022). Sustainable resort-related tourism growth: Identifying challenges and opportunities in Montalban, Rizal. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(3), 217-233.
  36. Lin, H.-E., & McDonough III, E. F. (2011). Investigating the role of leadership and organizational culture in fostering innovation ambidexterity. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 58(3), 497-509.
  37. Ma, B., Liu, S., Liu, D., & Wang, H. (2016). Job security and work performance in Chinese employees: The mediating role of organisational identification. International Journal of Psychology, 51(2), 123-129.
  38. Madanaguli, A., Srivastava, S., Ferraris, A., & Dhir, A. (2022). Corporate social responsibility and sustainability in the tourism sector: A systematic literature review and future outlook. Sustainable development, 30(3), 447-461.
  39. Malek, S. L., Sarin, S., & Haon, C. (2020). Extrinsic rewards, intrinsic motivation, and new product development performance. Journal of Product innovation management, 37(6), 528-551.
  40. Menges, J. I., Tussing, D. V., Wihler, A., & Grant, A. M. (2017). When job performance is all relative: How family motivation energizes effort and compensates for intrinsic motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 60(2), 695-719.
  41. Meyer-Sahling, J.-H., Mikkelsen, K. S., & Schuster, C. (2019). The causal effect of public service motivation on ethical behavior in the public sector: Evidence from a large-scale survey experiment. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 29(3), 445-459.
  42. Mohamed, G. A., Alakhras, H. A., Khalil, R. A., & Mohamed, M. A. (2021). Role of Tourism Advertising Campaigns in Improving Destination Image. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 3(1), 75-88.
  43. Mom, T. J., Fourné, S. P., & Jansen, J. J. (2015). Managers’ work experience, ambidexterity, and performance: The contingency role of the work context. Human resource management, 54(S1), s133-s153.
  44. Mom, T. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2007). Investigating managers' exploration and exploitation activities: The influence of top?down, bottom?up, and horizontal knowledge inflows. Journal of Management studies, 44(6), 910-931.
  45. Mom, T. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2009). Understanding variation in managers' ambidexterity: Investigating direct and interaction effects of formal structural and personal coordination mechanisms. Organization Science, 20(4), 812-828.
  46. Munzali, A. (2011). Tourism development in Nigeria: challenges and prospects for resource diversification. National institute for hospitality and tourism (Nihotour), Abuja, Nigeria.
  47. Nitzl, C., Roldan, J. L., & Cepeda, G. (2016). Mediation analysis in partial least squares path modeling: Helping researchers discuss more sophisticated models. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(9), 1849-1864.
  48. Özyurt, P. M., & Kantarc?, K. (2017). The intervening role of competitiveness on the relationship between sustainability and tourism performance: A research on European countries. Economic themes, 55(1), 89-103.
  49. Pattanayak, B. (2005). Human resource management: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
  50. Pierro, A., Cicero, L., & Raven, B. H. (2008). Motivated compliance with bases of social power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(7), 1921-1944.
  51. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), 879.
  52. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual review of psychology, 63(1), 539-569.
  53. Poulston, J. (2008). Hospitality workplace problems and poor training: a close relationship. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(4), 412-427.
  54. Prakoso, A. A., Pradipto, E., Roychansyah, M. S., & Nugraha, B. S. (2020). Community-based tourism: concepts, opportunities and challenges. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 95-107.
  55. Revilla, E., & Rodriguez-Prado, B. (2018). Bulding ambidexterity through creativity mechanisms: Contextual drivers of innovation success. Research Policy, 47(9), 1611-1625.
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