The role of park attributes in visitor satisfaction: evidence from Minneriya National Park in Sri Lanka

Purpose: This study was to explore and recognize visitor satisfaction on Minneriya national park, and this evaluation was to define the gaps for future national park studies in Sri Lanka. Research Methodology: Quantitative research design was used for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 180 foreign visitors and 180 local visitors. Purposive sampling tool was used in the study. SmartPLS was used as a tool to run the proposed theoretical model. Results: Destination image impacts of tourist satisfaction show that someone visiting a destination is strongly linked to the image of the tourist destination visited, particularly for those who have visited several times. Overall findings highlighted that all the hypotheses were accepted Limitations: Tourists’ satisfaction on park attributes is not to be the only factor effects on visitor satisfaction. Contribution: The study findings also provide guidelines for practitioners within the service sector to undertake the result and to adapt it to assessing and enhancing performance in national parks in Sri Lanka Keywords: Park attributes, Visitor satisfaction, Travel motivation, Destination image
Ruwan Ranasinghe, Udeshika Kumudulali, Amaya Kaumadi Ranaweera

Adaptation to risks related to ecotourism: development at Boabeng in the Bono East Region, Ghana

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptation strategies developed by residents in order to minimize the risks caused by the ecotourism project at Boabeng in the Bono East region of Ghana. Research methodology: Data collection instruments included schedules and interview guides. A sample of 404 heads of households was randomly selected for the administration of schedules, whilst 12 respondents each were purposively selected for focus group discussions and indepth interviews. Household data were analyzed using percentages, frequencies and mean responses. Findings: Findings indicate that households adapted to ecotourism risks by patrolling and farming off the feeding range of the monkeys. Limitations: Household heads and opinion leaders were made to assess the ecotourism project in terms of how they cope with it. These community leaders, some of whom were direct beneficiaries of the projects, may not give the right information and this may affect the results of the study. Respondents were however; assured of confidentiality of their responses so as to enable them give the right information on their adaptation to risks related to the ecotourism project in the community. Contribution: This study recommends the intensification of livelihood diversification schemes in the study area. Keywords: Destination, Limitations, Livelihood diversification, Local community, Local households, Monkey sanctuary, Vulnerable households
Thomas Yeboah, Charles Senior Afram, Bernice Quampah, Ahmed Kulega

Sustainable tourism and economic growth nexus in Kenya: policy implications for post-Covid-19

Purpose: The COVID-19 global pandemic has caused an unprecedented socio-economic impact. It has also raised our awareness of the role sustainability needs to play in our economic activities. This study investigated how sustainable tourism has contributed to economic growth in Kenya. Research Methodology: Eviews 10 software was used to analyze the time-series data. Drawing on data from 1995 to 2020, Johansen co-integration, Granger causality, and regression approaches were used. Results: The study found out that tourism employment and GDP are positively connected to economic growth in Kenya. The causality was unidirectional from economic growth to tourism contribution to GDP and employment, with a long-run linkage of the study determinants. Limitations: Since this research used the secondary sources of data, similar studies in the future may concentrate on the primary data sources to investigate the relationship between tourism employment and economic advancement. Contribution: At the new normal in the post-Covid-19 period, the study suggests that legislators and tourism policymakers should focus on the policies aimed at promoting sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism should be managed following the three pillars of sustainability. Keywords: Development, Domestic, Moderate, Regional, Scenario
Kipkosgei Bitok

Impact of community participation in adaptive wildlife resources management at Mole National Park, Ghana

Purpose: Wildlife resources constitute indispensable nature’s strongholds for human livelihoods strategies in forest, savanna zones across Ghana and the worldwide although, it often engendered conflicts. Impact of community participation on adaptive wildlife resources management was strategically assessed at Mole National Park. Research methodology: 60 randomly selected park environs residents were interviewed for valid responses using semi-structured questionnaires. Findings: High wildlife products demand has transformed bush meat into lucrative business through poaching by thousands of youths and adults, causing habitat destruction and sharp wildlife population decline. Hunters, poachers, middlemen, restaurant operators constituted game-trade-market-value chain. Limitations: Funding subjectivity reduced scope of the study to only few communities in dry season. Temptation to reject the questionnaires on suspicion of force evacuation plots against some park adjoining villages was later refuted. Hence, recovery rate was 100%. Contribution: We recommend that Wildlife Division of the Forestry Commission should strengthen synergies on community participation in adaptive wildlife management by coopting educational interventions that positively influence indigenous behaviors through seminars, workshops, face-to-face interactions. This will better define the rights, roles, responsibilities of key partners towards resolving communal wildlife conflicts. Keywords: Community participation, Wildlife management, Park sustainability, Poaching, Game-trade-market-value chain
Benjamin Makimilua Tiimub, Braimah Gbolo, Richard Wonnsibe Tiimob, Ernestina Laatman Tiimob, Vida Kumedzro, Elisha Tiimob

Evaluating tourism potentials for site development tourism along River Ethiope, Abraka, Nigeria

Purpose: The empirical research study evaluated environmental potentials of site locations for Tourism development along River Ethiope, Abraka Delta State, Nigeria, Four(4)sites’ 40 environmental features were considered important in the  tourism sites  evaluation. The primary data sources used include oral interview and administration of questionnaires. Research methodology: These are physical, biological and human components of tourism destinations, evaluated for each of the 4sites, and compared. Each of the 40 factors was measured using appropriate instruments like measuring tape and floater (for velocity).  Students t test was undertaken to compare the evaluations of the two groups of professional and non-professional assessors. With a calculated value of 0.143, and table value of 0.283, with df2:3 at 0.05 level, the difference in site ranking between the first and second evaluation was not considered significant. High confidence or reliability can therefore be placed on the tourism site evaluation results obtained at the 0.05 significance level. The use of nominal or interval scales was to estimate variables, which were not subject to direct measurements in interval scale. Three groups of sites emerged from the preliminary survey of those selected: Natural or undeveloped sites, relate. Results: Result obtained showed that undeveloped and natural sites emerged most highly rated in environmental potentials for tourism site development compared to underdeveloped or highly developed sites. Limitation: The area lies within tropical equatorial rain forest vegetation which is an impenetrable ticket of under growth with trees and climbers. Moreover, dangerous reptiles especially (snakes and crocodile) as well as insect (Mosquitos and tsetse fly) are present and harmful to man in the environment. Contribution: The study concludes and suggests natural sites be accord priority in tourism site development along River Ethiope and invariably other related natural area worldwide for maximum patronage implications based on advocated research methodology. Keywords: Tourism, Site, Evaluation, Development, River Ethiope, Abraka
O. D. Awaritefe, Danny Ochuko Ejemeyovwi

Saving and loan business management strategy of Satu Hati Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes)

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze saving and loan business management strategy in Satu Hati Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) In Naimana Village, Central Malaka Sub-District, Malaka District. Research methodology: This research used a descriptive research method with a qualitative approach. This research used purposive sampling technique. Results: The results of this study found that communication and cooperation are not good enough, there are no binding rules, and recording and bookkeeping are not in accordance with the borrower's deposit. Limitations: This research only analyzes Management Strategies for Savings and Loans at Satu Hati Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) in Naimana Village, Central Malaka Sub-District, Malaka Regency. Contribution: This research becomes information for the development of Satu Hati Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) so that this BUMDes can continue to grow. Keywords: Environmental observation, Management strategy, Savings and loans business, Strategy formulation, Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes)
Fransiskus Seran Nuak, William Djani, Petrus Kase Kase