Agritourism entrepreneurship in Greece: policy framework, inhibitory factors and a roadmap for further development

Purpose: This paper aimed to examine how agritourism as a mild form of tourism can contribute to sustainable tourism development. Research methodology: A primary survey was conducted using a closed-type questionnaire of multiple-choice questions and sent to a respective enterprise sample.  Results: The survey's output refers to the steps and measures that need to be taken for the further development of agritourism in Greece and its driving force as a pillar of sustainability growth. Limitations: The research addressed certain methodological issues, such as the difficulty of collecting the sample, since agritourism companies are not in total registered in Greece. There was also difficulty obtaining contact details (email, fax) from the list of final approved investments of the National Strategic Reference Framework. Contribution: The purpose is to present the views of agritourism entrepreneurs on their industry and identify the possible problems they encountered during their businesses' start-up and operation due to the legal or financial framework. Also, the state's role in this direction is examined and proposals are made for the further development of agritourism in Greece. Keywords: Farmer, Law 4276/2014, Legal framework of agritourism, National strategic reference framework, Rural tourism, State aid, Sustainable development
Panagiota Dionysopoulou

Enhancing the competitive advantage for tourist souvenirs in Egypt: a marketing approach

Purpose: The main aim of this research is to study the relationship between innovative marketing - in its various dimensions (innovation in product, innovation in price, innovation in promotion, innovation in distribution) - and enhancing the competitive advantage of tourist souvenirs in Egypt. Research methodology: The study adopted the descriptive-analytical approach for accurate and detailed descriptions of the study’s subject quantitatively and qualitatively and analyzed data available on this subject. The field study included surveying a random sample of tourists who frequented the souvenirs and handicrafts stores in various tourist cities in Egypt. Results: There is a statistically significant effect of innovative marketing in enhancing tourist souvenirs’ competitive advantage in Egypt. Overall findings highlighted that all the hypotheses were accepted. Limitations: The repercussions of the COVID-19 virus crisis reduced the scope of the study to only tourists in South Sinai and Red sea Governorates; whereas, tourist souvenirs stores were allowed to operate in accordance with the precautionary measures in only three main governorates: the Red Sea, South Sinai, and Marsa Matrouh, in addition to some gift shops in major hotels. Contribution: The study findings provide guidelines for practitioners within the tourist souvenirs and handicrafts sector to undertake the results and adapt them to assess and enhance their performance. Thus, they could improve their competitiveness. Keywords: Tourist souvenirs, Innovative marketing, Competitive advantage
Ghada Abdallah Mohamed, Nour Elhoda Ali, Hebatullah Atef Alakhras

The understanding of food fraud among consumers in Klang Valley, Malaysia

Purpose: This study aimed to understand food fraud awareness and understanding from the Malaysian consumers' perspective. Research methodology: Five face-to-face in-depth interviews using random purposive sampling were administered to obtain insights into Malaysian consumers' multiple realities. A peer review with an expert in quality control of the food supply chain was done to increase data trustworthiness and validate the findings. Results: The findings indicated that awareness about food fraud among Malaysian consumers is relatively low. As consumers do not have the ability and necessary tools to evaluate food fraud, regulatory authority, certification bodies, and trade associations are responsible for protecting food integrity by mitigating food fraud. Limitations:  The study was self-funded and conducted in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Due to that, no generalization can be made from the data. Contribution: This outcome can be used as a knowledge base for policymakers and trade industries in regulating the sustainability and integrity of the food industry, particularly for consumer outreach programs in disseminating accurate technical knowledge of food to the public. Keywords: Food industry, Food inspection, Consumers education, Consumer protection, Consumer awareness, Food consumption
Nur Nisaa Ahmad, Siti Nurhayati Khairatun

The impact of Covid-19 lockdown on socio-economic activities in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Purpose: Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic affects social and economic activities all over the world. This study analyses the impact of lockdown caused by the pandemic in Kaduna State, Nigeria, so that the public can appreciate it and take adequate measures to curb it. Research methodology: A total of 370 questionnaires were administered to traders, worshippers, parents and marketers. The interview was also conducted in mosques and churches, markets and houses to collect data during and after the Covid-19 lockdown. The data were collected within a month from Tuesday 21 May 2020 to 21 June 2020. Results: The results reveal that 67% of the respondents see commercial activities doing well before the lockdown, but only 12% during the lockdown and a further 59% after the lockdown. The results also reveal that 56% of the respondents see educational acquisitions doing well before the lockdown, 13% during and 24% after the lockdown. The results further show that 60%, 10% and 53% were for before, during and after the lockdown, respectively, for religious activities. Limitation: The data was not collected before the lockdown but only during and after. This might not give highly reliable data for one of the data was organised not at the exact time of the incidence. Contribution: The study will help both public and private organisations appreciate the difficulties caused by the lockdown in the state so as to find alternative ways of cubbing the pandemic subsequently. The study can also be replicated in some areas with similar characteristics. Keywords: Impact, Covid-19, Lockdown, Socio-economic activities
Abdulkadir Muhammed Yahaya, Adenike Montiliat, Hajara Salahudeen

Relationship between the three dimensions of institutes required for entrepreneurship development

Purpose: The study was conducted to formulate the relationship between the three dimensions of institutes, namely cognitive, regulative and, normative dimensions of institutes. The model was formulated using SmartPLS 3. Research Methodology: In this study, the Five-point Likert scale was used and the data were collected from postgraduate students in two states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand. SmartPLS 3 was used to formulate the model and establish the relationship between the three dimensions of institutes. Results: There exists a positive relationship between "Cognitive dimension and normative dimension"; "Regulative dimensions and Cognitive dimensions; and between Regulative dimensions and Normative dimensions" respectively of institutes. Limitations: Study is conducted on a small sample of 100 postgraduate students from two states of India namely Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh which may decrease the reliability of the study. Contribution: In this study, a relationship is established by using smart PLS 3 between the three dimensions of institutes required for entrepreneurship development with the help of Likert scale developed based on previous studies which can help in measuring the country institutional profile and provide the base for studying the role of these dimension of the institute in entrepreneurial intention growth among the postgraduate students in states of India.
Saurabh Sonkar, Ashoke Kumar Sarkar